Volume 3, Issue 3, September 2018, Page: 89-94
Changes in Physicochemical Characteristics and Microbiological Quality of Bakery Shortening Formulated with Shea Butter and Fluted Pumpkin Seed Oil During Storage
Kiin-Kabari David Barine, Department of Food Science and Technology, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Eke-Ejiofor Joy, Department of Food Science and Technology, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Chibor Bariwere Samuel, Department of Food Science and Technology, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Received: Jun. 28, 2018;       Accepted: Jul. 11, 2018;       Published: Oct. 12, 2018
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijfsb.20180303.13      View  233      Downloads  25
The objective of this work was to evaluate the changes that occur in physicochemical characteristics and microbiological qualityof bakery shortening formulated with Shea stearin and fluted pumpkin seed oil blends during storage, so as to ascertain its storage stability. Edible oils were extracted from Shea nuts (Vitellaria paradoxa Geartner) and Fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook) seeds. The extracted Shea butter and fluted pumpkin seed oil samples were refined and modified using two methods namely fractionation and chemical interesterification to produce bakery fats. The Shea butter was fractionated, and the solid stearin fraction blended with fluted pumpkin seed oil in the following ratios: 30:70, 40:60, and 50:50, (Shea stearin: fluted pump seed oil), The blends were stabilized with recommended additives such as; distilled monoglyceride (E471) and preservatives such as; citric acid (E330), BHT (E321), and sodium benzoate (E211), homogenized by continuous stirring and plasticized by chilling to 17°C, then tempered at 23 – 25°C for 48h, to attain a stable polymorphic form, used as fractionated blends (FRBs). Another set of 30:70; 40:60; and 50:50 (Shea stearin: fluted pumpkin seed oil), were chemically interesterified with sodium methoxide (CH3ONa) as catalyst, crystalized, stabilized, and used as chemically interesterified fractionated blends (CIEFBs). The products were packed and sealed in opaque plastic cups and stored at room temperature (28±2°C) for 90 days. Changes in physicochemical properties (including solid fat content) and microbiological quality (yeast and moulds count) were determined. Peroxide value (PV) and acid value (AV) of the bakery fats formulated with fractionated blends increased slightly after 90 days of storage. There were no significant (P>0.05) increase in PV of the interesterified samples after storage for 90 days. No significant change was recorded in the iodine value, slip melting point, and smoke point of the products on storage, except the 30:70 fractionated blend which reduces in iodine value (IV) and smoke point from 94.60g/100g to 92.50g/100g, and 200.30°C – 198.00°C, respectively. The products were microbiologically stable throughout the period of storage.
Physicochemical, Microbiological, Bakery Shortening, Shea Butter, Fluted Pumpkin, Storage
To cite this article
Kiin-Kabari David Barine, Eke-Ejiofor Joy, Chibor Bariwere Samuel, Changes in Physicochemical Characteristics and Microbiological Quality of Bakery Shortening Formulated with Shea Butter and Fluted Pumpkin Seed Oil During Storage, International Journal of Food Science and Biotechnology. Vol. 3, No. 3, 2018, pp. 89-94. doi: 10.11648/j.ijfsb.20180303.13
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Rios, R. V., Pessanha, M. D. F., Almeida, P. F., Viana, C. L. and Lanne, S. C. (2014). Application of fat in some food products. Food Science and Technology (Campinas), 3(1), 3-15.
Gulla, S. and Waghray, K. (2011). Effect of storage on physico-chemical characteristics and fatty acid composition of selected oil blends. Journal of Lipid Science, 3(1), 35-46.
Chibor, B. S., Kiin-Kabari, D. B. and Eke-Ejiofor, J. (2017). Physicochemical properties and fatty acid profile of shea butter and fluted pumpkin seed oil, a suitable blend in bakery fat production. International Journal of Nutrition and Food Science, 6(3), 122-128.
O’Brien, R. D. (2004). Fats and Oil. Formulating and Processing for Application, 2nd ed. Technomic Publishing Co. Inc Lancester, pp.437-458.
Institute of Shortening and Edible Oils (ISEO). (2006). Food Fats and Oil, 9th edition. Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://www.iseo.org. 7th June, 2016.
Alejandro, G. M. and Ghazani S. M, (2012). Trends in Interesterification of Fats and Oil. Retrieved from https://www.ilsina.org. 15th June, 2016.
AOAC (2012). Association of Official Analytical Chemist, Official Methods of Analysis.19th Edition, Washington, D.C.
Nazaruddin, R. (2013). Determination of SFC in Oils and Fats. Advance Chemical Analysis of Food Laboratory. Retrieved from http://sitiradhiahabrazak.files.wordpress.com. 2nd June, 2016.
McClement, D. J. (1999). Food Emulsions: Principles, Practices and Techniques. Boca Raton, Florida, CRC Press.
Fernande, H., Kashin, H., Akissoe, N., Coulibaly, O., Fandohan, P. and Hounhouigan, J. (2011). Effect of storage conditions on microbiological and physicochemical quality of shea butter. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 48(3), 274-279.
Ghotra, B. S., Dyal, S. D. and Narine, S. S. (2002). Lipid shortenings: a review. Food Research International, 35, 1015-1048.
Bockish, M. (1998). Fats and Oils Handbook, Champaign, IL: American Oil Chemists’ Society Press.
Agarwal, A., Siddhu, A., Sundararaj, P. and Taneja, K. K. (2000). Storage Stability at Household Level of Edible Grade Crude Palm Oil. Journal of Oil Technology Association of India, 32(3), 124-128.
Zaeroomali, M., Maghsoudlou, Y. and Araey, P. (2014). Effect of storage on margarine in refrigerated temperature. European Journal of Experimental Biology, 4(3), 182-184.
Ghazalia, F., Lai, O. M., Cho, C. and Chong, L. (2000). Physical properties of lipase-catalysed transesterified blends of palm stearin and anhydrous milk fat. Journal of Food Chemistry. 70, 215-219.
Nasirullah, K. N., Ankaiah, M. N., Krishnamurthy, M. N. and Nagaraja, K. V. (1991). Quality characteristics of edible vegetable oil blends. Journal of American Oil Chemists’ Society, 68, 446-447.
Aremu, M. O., Ibrahim, H., and Bamidele, T. O. (2015). Physicochemical characteristics of the oils extracted from some Nigerian plant foods. Chemical and Process Engineering Research, 32, 22-25.
International Commission on Microbiological Specification for Foods (ICMSF). (1995). Food Administration Manual. Version 2.0. Retrieved from http://www.icmsf.org. 3rd July, 2016).
Charteris, W. P. (1995). Physicochemical aspect of the microbiology of edible table spreads. International Journal of Dairy Technology, 48(3), 87-96.
Browse journals by subject