Volume 4, Issue 4, December 2019, Page: 87-93
Physicochemical Properties of the Seed Kernels and the Oil of Custard Apple (Annona squamosa L.)
Dalia H. Eshra, Food Science and Technology Department, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
Attia R. Shehata, Food Science and Technology Department, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
Abdel-Nabey A. Ahmed, Food Science and Technology Department, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
Jehan I. Saber, Home Economics Department, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt
Received: Jul. 7, 2019;       Accepted: Oct. 22, 2019;       Published: Nov. 19, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijfsb.20190404.12      View  616      Downloads  238
Abstract
Custard apple (Annona squamosal L.) seed kernel and the extracted oil were characterized for their physicochemical properties. Crude ether extract was found to be the main component where, the seed kernels had 31.22%. Moreover, protein content was 20.01%. On the other hand, the crude fiber and total ash were 15.43 and 1.89%, respectively. Total phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and IC50 of CASKF were 42.02 mg GAE/ 100g, 87.55% and 22.84 μg/ml, respectively. The results indicated that CASKF is rich in content of K, P, Ca, Mg and Na. Nevertheless, very low levels of Cd and Pb were detected. The amino acid composition of the defatted CASKF indicated that glutamic, aspartic, alanine, leucine and arginine were the predominant amino acids. The total amount of essential amino acids in the defatted CASKF was 37.77 g /100g protein (-) which is higher than that reported in FAO/ WHO pattern. The dominant fatty acids of custard apple seed kernel oil were oleic (49.75%), Linoleic (22.50%), palmitic (15.06%) and stearic and (4.63%). The oil could be classified as a semi-dry oil. Total lipid fractions consisted mainly of nine classes in which triacylglycerols were the major class.
Keywords
Custard Apple, Annona Squamosa, Chemical Composition, Oil Characteristics
To cite this article
Dalia H. Eshra, Attia R. Shehata, Abdel-Nabey A. Ahmed, Jehan I. Saber, Physicochemical Properties of the Seed Kernels and the Oil of Custard Apple (Annona squamosa L.), International Journal of Food Science and Biotechnology. Vol. 4, No. 4, 2019, pp. 87-93. doi: 10.11648/j.ijfsb.20190404.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Gajalakshmi, S., Divya, R., Deepika, V. D., Mythili, S. and sathiavelu, A., 2011. Pharmacological Activities of Annonasquamosa: A Review. International Journal of Pharmaceutical sciences Review and Research, 10: 24-29.
[2]
Biba, V. S., Lakshmi, S., Dhanya, G. S. and Remani, p., 2013. Phytochemical analysis of Annonasquamosa seed extracts its. International Research Journal of Pharmaceutical and Applied Sciences, 3: 29-31.
[3]
Badrie, N. and Schauss, A., 2009. Soursop (Annonamuricate L.): Composition, nutritional value, medicinal uses and toxicology. In: "Watson, R. R. and Preedy, V. D eds". Bioactive Foods in Promoting Health. Oxford: Academic Press. PP: 621-643.
[4]
Morton, J. F., 1987. Soursop. In "Fruits of warm climates". Greenshoro, NC: Media Incorporated, pp: 75-80.
[5]
Suresh, K., Manoharan, S., Panjamurthy, K. and Kavita, K., 2006. Chemo preventive and antilipidperoxidative efficiency of Annonasquamosa bark extract. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 9: 2600-2605.
[6]
Ranjan, R. and Sahai, M., 2009. Coumarinolignans from the seed of Annonasquamosa Linn. E-Journal of Chemistry, 6: 518-522.
[7]
Patel, J. D. and kumar, V., 2008. Annonasquamosa L.: phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial screening. Journal of Pharmacy Research, 1: 34-37.
[8]
Vidyasagar, G. M. and Shivakumar, S. P., 2012. A comparative antimicrobial activity of methanolic root, leaf, seed cotyledon extracts of Annonasqamosa L. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4: 289-292.
[9]
Raj, D. S. andVennila, J. J., 2014. Antimicrobial activity of different polarity solvent extracts of Annonasquamosa leaves and seeds, International Journal of Microbiological Research, 1: 385-388.
[10]
Koushik, O. S., Babu, P. S. and Karthikeyan, R., 2017. Phytochemical screening and evaluation of anti-fungal activity on the seed extracts of Annonasquamosa (L.) and Manilkarazapota (L.) CIB Tech Journal of Biotechnology, 6: 8-11.
[11]
Hotti, S. R. and Hebbal, O. D., 2015. Biodiesel production process optimization from sugar apple seed oil (Annonasquamosa) and its characterization. Journal of Renewable Energy, 2015: 1-6.
[12]
Kad, V. P., Jadhav, M. S. and Nimbalkar, C. A., 2016. Studies on physical, morphological and rheological properties of custard apple (Aannonasquamosa L). International Journal of Applied and Pure Science and Agriculture, 2: 140-147.
[13]
AOAC, 2003. Official Methods of Analysis 16th ed. Association of Official Analytical chemists International. Arlington, virginia, USA.
[14]
Ranganna, S., 1977. Manual of Analysis of Fruit and Vegetable Products. Mc. Graw-Hill pub. Co. ltd., New Delhi.
[15]
Naczk, M. and shahidi, F., 1989. The effect of methanol ammonia water treatment on the content of phenolic acids of canola. Food chem., 31: 159-164.
[16]
Brand- Williams, W., Cuvelier, M. E. and Bersct, C., 1995. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LebensmittelWissenschaft und Technologie, 28: 25-30.
[17]
Blauth, O. J., Chareinki, M. and Berbec., H., 1963. A new rapid method for determining tryptophan. Analytical Biochemistry, 8: 69-70.
[18]
FAO/WHO, 1985. Energy and protein requirements. WHO Tech. Rep. Ser. No 724, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
[19]
Folch, J., lees, M. and Stanley, G. H., 1957. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J. Biol. chem., 226: 497-509.
[20]
Mangold, H. K. and Malins, D. C., 1960. Fractionation of fats, oils and waxes on thin layers of silicic acid. J. Am. Oil, Chem Soc., 37: 383-385.
[21]
Rahma, E. H. and Abd El-Aal, M. H., 1988. Chemical characterization of peach kernel oil and protein: Functional properties, In-vitro digestibility and amino acid profile of the flour. Food chem., 27: 31-43.
[22]
Radwan, S. S., 1978. Coupling of two dimensional thin layer chromatography with gas chromatography for the quantitative analysis of lipid classes and their constituent fatty acids. J. Chromatog. Sci, 16: 538-542.
[23]
American Oil Chemist's Society, 1983. Official Methods. Official and Tentative Methods of the American Oil Chemist's Society. 3rd Ed., Walker, R. O. (Ed.) AOCS, Illinois, U.S.A.
[24]
Steel, R. G. D. and Torrie, J. H., 1980. Principles and Procedures of Statistics, New York. McGraw- Hill Book comp. INC, New York, USA.
[25]
Hassan, L. G., Mohammad, M. U., Umar, K. J. and Sokoto, A. M., 2008. Comparative study on the proximate and mineral contents of the seed and pulp of sugar apple (Annonasquamosa). Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 16: 179-182.
[26]
Mariod, A. A., Elkheir, S., Ahmed, Y, M. and Matthaus, B., 2010. Annonasquamosa and Catunaregamnilotica seeds, the effect of the extraction method on the oil composition. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soci., 87: 763-769.
[27]
Mariod, A. A., Elkheir, S., Ahmed, Y. M and Matthaus, B., 2011. Review: Organic foods from Annonasquamosa (Gishta) and Catunaregamnilotica (Kirkir). Journal of Science and Technology, 12: 84-91.
[28]
Shardul, K., Swati, J., Prajakta, K., Prafullachandra, T., Santosh, P. andArun, R., 2013. Proximate analysis of peel and seed of Annonasquamosa (Custard apple) fruit. Research Journal of Chemical Sciences, 3: 92-94.
[29]
Chen, Y., Chen, Y., Shi, Y., Ma, C., Wang, X., Li, Y., Miao, Y., Chen, J. and Li, X., 2016. Antitumor activity of Annonasquamosa seed oil. Journal of Ethno pharmacology, 193: 362-367.
[30]
Kothari, V. and Seshadri, S., 2010. Antioxidant activity of seed extracts ofAnnonasquamosaand Carica Papaya. Nutrition & food science, 40: 403-408.
[31]
Kadarani, D. K., Setyadjit, S., Seno, D. S. H. and Sakashih, E., 2013. Total phenol and antioxidant from seed and peel of ripe and unripe of Indonesian sugar apple (Annonasquamosa L.) extracted with various solvents IOSR Journal of pharmacy, 5: 20-25.
[32]
Vijayaraghavan, K., Ali, S. M. and Maruthi, R., 2013. Studies on phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of chromolaenaodorata and Annonasquamosa. International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 2: 7315-7321.
[33]
Amoo, I. A., Emenike, A. E. and Akpambang, V. O. E., 2008. Compositional evaluation of Annona cherimoya (custard apple) fruit. Trends in Applied Sciences Research, 3: 216-220.
[34]
Souza, F. T. C., Santos, E. R., da Cruz Silva, J., Valentim, I. B., Braga Rabelo, T. H., Farias de Andrade, N. R. and de Souza Silva, L. K., 2018. Production of nutritious flour from residue custard apple (Annonasquamosa L.) for the development of new products. Journal of Food Quality, 2018: 1-10.
[35]
Abdel-Nabey, A. A. and Attia, A. A., 1998. Physical properties and chemical composition of cantaloupe seeds as an unexploited source of vegetable oil. MenofiyaJ. Agric. Res., 23: 991-1007.
[36]
Abdel-Nabey, A. A., 1999. Chemical composition and oil characteristics of date pits of six Egyptian cultivars. Alex. J. Agric. Res. 44: 127-141.
[37]
Abu-Tor, E. S. M., Abdel-Nabey, A. A. and Sherin, F. A. Awd Allah (2012). Utilization of dehydrated mushroom flour in some functional food products. Alex. J. Fd. Sci.& Technol., 9: 33-45.
[38]
Abdel-Nabey, A. A., Abu-Tor, E. S. M. and Abou-Gharbia, H. A., 2013. Chemical and technological studies on flaxseed (Linumusitatissimum) and its application in some functional food. J. Foods and Dairy Sci., Mansoura Univ., 4: 193-216.
[39]
Abdel- Nabey, A. A. and Abou- Tor, E-S. M., 2014. Chemical composition and some physico -chemical characteristics of okra seeds and into extracted oil. Alex. J. Fd. Sci: &Technol., 11: 11-19.
[40]
Swern, D., 1979. Bailey's Industrial Oil and Fat Products. Vol. 1, John Wiley and Sons, N.Y. 6th Edition.
[41]
Lokhande, A. R., Patil, V. S. and Wani, K. S., 2013. Study of diethanolamide from Custard apple seed oil (Annonasquamosa L.). International Journal of Engineering Research &Technology, 2: 448-425.
[42]
Onimawo, I. A., 2002. Proximate composition and selected physicochemical properties of the seed, pulp and oil of sour sop (Annonamuricata). Plant foods for Human Nutrition, 57: 165-171.
[43]
Acda, M. N., 2014. Chemical composition of ethanolic seed extract of Annonasquamosa L. and A. muricata L.(Annonaceae) using G C- MS analysis. The Philippine Agricultural Scientist, 97: 422-426.
[44]
Rana, V. S., 2015. Fatty oil and fatty acid composition of Annonasquamosa Linn. Seed kernels. International Journal of Fruit Science, 15: 79-84.
Browse journals by subject