Volume 5, Issue 2, June 2020, Page: 31-40
Interaction Effect of Seasonal Variations on the Presence of Heavy Metals in the Environment and Ready-to-Eat Food in Parts of Port Harcourt Metropolis
Oyet Gogomary Israel, Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Achinewhu Simeon Chituru, Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Kiin-Kabari David Barine, Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Akusu Ohwesiri Monday, Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Received: Apr. 21, 2020;       Accepted: May 7, 2020;       Published: Jun. 4, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijfsb.20200502.13      View  121      Downloads  35
The presence of heavy metals in the environment and ready-to-eat street food were investigated to determine the interaction effect of seasonal variations on food safety in parts of Port Harcourt city. The study was carried out using complete randomization design in factorial experiment. The experiment was conducted in dry and wet seasons along the 3 locations (Makoba- 1, Elekahia- 2 and Rivers State University-3). The Six Food products studied were roasted plantain, fish, yam, suya, meat pie and doughnuts. Lead, Cadmium, Nickel, Mercury and Arsenic in Foods and Environment were examined. Heavy metal distribution in ambient air from stations 1-3 showed Cadmium (Cd) ranged from <0.01mg/100g – 0.2154mg/100g, with significantly high value of 0.2154mg/100g observed at Elekahia during the raining season. Arsenic was detected from Makoba at raining season and stations 1 and 2 during the dry season, with values of 0.0057mg/100g, 0.0104mg/100g and 0.0099mg/100g, respectively. Nickel values were negligible (<0.001). Lead values 0.0492mg/100g and 0.0650mg/100g were seen only at Makobar during the raining and dry seasons. The presence of Lead during the dry season was significantly different (P<0.05) higher value of 0.0650mg/100g at Makoba than the raining season. Cadmium (Cd) value of 0.0023mg/100g each were detected in roasted Yam (RY1) and Doughnut (DN1) from Makobar, while Lead, Arsenic, Nickel and Mercury were not detected in any of the Ready-to eat food samples during the raining season. Cd values of 0.003mg/100g, 0.003mg/100g and 0.004mg/100g were detected in roasted plantain (RP1, RP3), and roasted fish (RF2), respectively. Arsenic was noticed in suya (SY1-3) values of 0.025, 0.010 and 0.005mg/100g, respectively. While, Ni was only detected in meat pie (MP1 and MP2) (0.06mg/100g each). Lead and Mercury were not detected at dry season. The interaction effects of season and location on heavy metal deposit in ready –to-eat-street foods showed that while Cd was detected at levels of 0.0023mg/100g in roasted yam and doughnut from Makobar during the raining season, Cd was not present in same foods during the dry season. Arsenic was high during the dry season at Makobar, but not detected during the raining season. Nickel was present at level of 0.006mg/100g in meat pie during the dry season but not detected during the raining season. Further work on the comprehensive outdoor air quality and street food quality in Port Harcourt metropolis to serve as a protection to public health and consumer interest is hereby suggested.
Interaction Effect, Dry and Wet Season, Heavy Metals, Contaminations, Environment, Ready-to-Eat Street Foods
To cite this article
Oyet Gogomary Israel, Achinewhu Simeon Chituru, Kiin-Kabari David Barine, Akusu Ohwesiri Monday, Interaction Effect of Seasonal Variations on the Presence of Heavy Metals in the Environment and Ready-to-Eat Food in Parts of Port Harcourt Metropolis, International Journal of Food Science and Biotechnology. Vol. 5, No. 2, 2020, pp. 31-40. doi: 10.11648/j.ijfsb.20200502.13
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Otene, B. B. & Alfred-Ockiya J. F. (2019). Human and Ecological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Water and Sediment of Elechi Creek, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology (IOSR-JESTFT). Volume 13, PP 01-07.
Hussain, R. T., Ebraheem, M. K. & Moker, H. M. (2012). Assessment of Heavy Metals (Cd, Pb and Zn) contents in Livers of Chicken available in the local markets of Basrah City, Iraq. Bas. J. Vet. Res. 11 (1): 43.
Pan X. D., Tang J., Chen Q., Wu P. G. & Han J. L. (2013). Evaluation of direct sampling method for trace elements analysis in Chinese rice wine by ICP–OES. European Food Research and Technology, 236: 531–535.
EPA (1985). US Environmental Protection Agency. An exposure and risk assessment for benzo [a] pyrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Vol IV. Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency. EPA Report No. 4–85–020–V4.
[IARC] International Agency for Research on Cancer. 1973. Certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds. Monograph on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks of the chemical to man. Vol. 3. Lyon, France: World Health Organization.
Alloway, B. J, & Steinnes, E. (1999). Cadmium in soils and plants. Kluwer Academic Publishers; Anthropogenic additions of cadmium to soils; pp. 97–123.
Morrow H. Kirk-Othmer (2001). Encyclopedia of chemical technology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; Cadmium and cadmium alloys. pp. 471–507.
Ekpo, K. O., Asia, I. O., Amayo, K. O. & Jegede, D. A. (2008). Determination of Pb, Cd and Hg in Surrounding Water and Organs of some Species of Fish in Ikpoba River in Benin City, Nigeria. International Journal of Physical Science, 3 (11): 289-292.
Mohammed, A. A, Iniaghe, P. O., Okoro, H. K., Saliu, O. D. & Adeoti T. P. (2016). Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Vended Road-Side Snacks using Ilorin as a Case Study. Al-Hikmah Journal of Pure & Applied Sciences, 3: 51-56.
Sobukola, O., Adeniran, O., Odedairo, A. & Kajihausa, O. E. (2010). Heavy Metal Levels of Some Fruits and Leafy Vegetables from Selected Markets in Lagos Nigeria. African Journal of Food Science, 4 (2) 389–393.
Forastieri, V. (1997). Chemical Exposures: Children at Work – Health and Safety Risks; International Labour Organization. Geneva. Pp 114-115.
Baruthio, F. (1992). Toxic effects of chromium and its compounds. Biological trace elements Research. 32 (1-3): 145-153.
Environmental Health and Safety (EHS) (2009). The health effects of mercury. Oklahoma State University.www.ehs.okstate.edu/training/mercury.htm.
WHO, (1988). International Operator’s Handbook for the Measurement of Background Atmospheric Pollution No. 491E.
APHA (American Public Health Association) (1998). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater 20th Edition, Washington D. C.
FMEnv (1991). Federal Environmental Protection Agency 1991. National Interim Guidelines and Standards for Industrial Effluent, Gases emission and Hazard s waste management in Nigerian.
Smirjakova S, Ondrassovicova O, Kaskova A, Lakticova K (2005). The Effect of Cadmium and Lead Pollution on Human and Animal Health. Fol. Veter. 49: 31-32.
TCEQ: Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (2017). Emissions Inventory Guidelines Published and distributed by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality P. O. Box 13087 Austin TX 78711-3087.
Williams Tamuno Alexander (2019). Assessment of Socioeconomic and Human Health impact of Black Soot on Residents in Port Harcourt. An unpublished dissertation submitted to the Institute of Petroleum Studie University of Port Harcourt in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of the Master of Science degree in Occupational Health and Safety (M. Sc.).
Ajayi, A., & Kamson, O. E (1983). Determination of Lead in roadside dust in Lagos city by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Environ Int. 9: 397 – 400.
Ogunsola, O. J., Oluwole, A. F., Osubiojo, I. O., Durosinmi, M. A., Fatusi, A. O., & Ruck, W. (1994). Environmental Impact of Vehicular traffic in Nigeria. Health Aspects. Sci Total Environ. 146 (147): 111-116.
Onianwa, P. C, & Egunyomi, A. (1983). A Trace metal levels in some Nigerian mosses as indicators of atmospheric.
Audu Pius, Y. Mohammed & A. O. Aliyu (2014). Evaluations of Some Carcinogenic Organic Compounds in industrial effluents. Lambert Academic Publishing, Omniscriptum GmBH & Co KG. Germany.
Ede, P. N & Edokpa, D. O. (2017). Satellite Determination of Particulate Load over Port Harcourt during Black Soot Incidents. Journal of Atmospheric Pollution, 2017, 5 (2): 55-61.
Rivers State Ministry of Environment (2017). Report on Particulate Matter (Soot) Analysis Study on some Parts of Port Harcourt. Government of Rivers State of Nigeria, 16pp.
SPDC (2017). Soot Report: Ambient Air Characterization of Selected Areas in Port Harcourt. Port Harcourt: Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria.
Eke-Ejiofor J & Maxwell, U.S. (2019). Safety and Quality assessment of street vended roasted plantain (bole) in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. International Journal of Biotechnology and Food Science 7 (1): 9-13.
Zeleznik J (1994). Occurrence of Heavy Metals in Smoked Meat Products (In Slovak). Attestation. Thesis, Institute for Education of Veterinary Surgeons Ko5ice. p. 46.
Jarup, L. (2003). Hazards of heavy metals contamination. Br. Med. Bull. 68: 167-182.
Oyelola, O. T, Afolabi, M. I, Ajiboshin, I. O & Banjoko, I. O (2013). Heavy metal and microbial contents of roadside roasted corn and plantain in Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. International Journal of Research In Medical and Health Sciences. 3 (1).
Adekunle, I. M, & Akinyemi, M. F (2004). Lead levels of certain consumer products in Nigeria: A case study of smoked fish foods from Abeokuta. Food Chem. Toxicol. 42 (9): 1463-1468.
Opeolu, B. O., Adebayo, K., Okuneye, P. A., & Badru, F. A. (2010). Physicochemical and Microbial Assessment of Roadside Food and Water Samples in Lagos and Environs. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. 14 (1) 29-34.
Poonkothia, M. S. & Vijayavathi, B. (2012). Nickel as an Essential Element and a Toxicant. International Journal of Environmental Science, 1 (4) 285-288.
WHO, (1996). Essential safety requirements for the street vended foods (revised edition) Geneva: World Health Organization, Food Safety Unit.
FAO/WHO (2007). Essential Safety Requirement for Street-Vended Foods: Revised Edition. Food safety division of food and Nutrition pp 4-27.
Ojo, O. I., Ogundiran, M. B. & Adebayo, O. L. (2015). Toxic and Essential Metals in Staple Foods Commonly Consumed By Students in Ekiti State, South West, Nigeria. International Journal of Chemistry, 7 (1): 155-160.
Salama, A. K. & Radwan, M. A. (2005). Heavy Metals (Cd, Pb) and Trace elements (Cu, Zn) Contents in some Foodstuffs from the Egyptian Market. Emirate Journal of Agricultural Science, 17 (1) 34-42.
Tegegne, W. A. (2015). Assessment of Some Heavy Metals Concentration in Selected Cereals Collected from Local Markets of Ambo City, Ethiopia. Journal of Cereals and Oilseeds, 6, (2) 8-13.
World Health Organization (2014). Guide on safe food for travellers. Http//www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/consumer/traveller/en/index.html.
Nicolas, B., Ominite, D., Odukoya, O. O, & Ajayi, S. O (2014). Trace heavy metals in Nigerian Fish: lead and cadmium. Nigerian Journal of Nutr. Sci. 8: 105-113.
Tapos Kormoker, Ram Proshad, Md. Saiful Islam, Md. Shamsuzzoha, Ayesha Akter & Tanmoy Roy Tusher (2020) Concentrations, source apportionment and potential health risk of toxic metals in foodstuffs of Bangladesh, Toxin Reviews, DOI: 10.1080/15569543.2020.1731551.
Oyet Gogomary Israel, Achinewhu Simeon Chituru, Kiin-Kabari David Barine & Akusu Monday Ohwesiri (2020). Effects of Seasonal Variations and location on Proximate Compositions of vended Street Food in parts of Port Harcourt, Rivers State. Word Journal of Food Science and Technology. Vol. 4, No. 2, 2020, pp. 53-61.
Browse journals by subject