Volume 5, Issue 4, December 2020, Page: 83-88
Prevalence and Concentration of Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) in Kales (Brassica oleracea Acephala) & Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) Sold at Masaku County, Kenya
Mutuku Joseph Mutua, Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Biological and Life Sciences, Technical University of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya
Onjong Hillary Adawo, Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Biological and Life Sciences, Technical University of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya
Orina Isaac Alfred, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, School of Health Science and Technology, Technical University of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya
Mwaniki Mercy Wanjiru, Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Biological and Life Sciences, Technical University of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya
Vuluku Reagan, Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Biological and Life Sciences, Technical University of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya
Muchai Venessa, Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Biological and Life Sciences, Technical University of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya
Received: Sep. 17, 2020;       Accepted: Oct. 6, 2020;       Published: Nov. 9, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijfsb.20200504.16      View  20      Downloads  15
Abstract
Background: Exposure to heavy metals (Pb and Cd) through diet posses a significant risk to human health. Areas of Mlolongo, Athi River and Syokimau are surrounded by industries, which dispose off their waste water to existing rivers and streams. The waste water is further used for irrigation which increases consumption of vegetables contaminated with lead and cadmium by human populations. Sample collection and analysis: samples were collected from markets, supermarkets and open air markets in Mlolongo, Athi river and Syokimau areas. Samples were analyzed for Lead and Cadmium using the AAS method as outlined in the AOAC. Results: Kale from farms around Mlolongo had lead content of 41.10±3.15µg/Kg compared to kale from farms in Syokimau (0.36±0.01µg/Kg). Spinach had lower concentration of lead (14.10±1.05µg/Kg) in farms in Mlolongo and 1.70±0.06µg/Kg in supermarkets in Syokimau. Than spinach. To the contrary cadmium contents were higher in spinach (0.51±0.02µg/Kg in supermarket in Mlolongo) than kale (0.38±0.01µg/Kg supermarkets in Mlolongo and Syokimau). Kale had a higher lead than cadmium content in the firm one in Athi river (14.00±2.10µg/Kg) than 3.80±0.81 µg/Kg) in the second farm which was the lowest. Vegetables from farm one are irrigated using effluent water from close industries. Lead content was highest in the first market (14.00±2.10µg/Kg) than the second market (3.80±0.81µg/Kg) in Athi river town. Cadmium contents were lower than lead but highest in the third market than the second market in the same town (0.20±0.07µg/Kg). Cadmium content was high in kale from supermarket in Athi river at (3.70±0.07 µg/Kg). Concentrations of lead in spinach were highest in the first farm at 5.30±1.10 µg/Kg and least in the spinach in supermarket at 0.30±0.01 µg/Kg. Conclusions: Lead content in vegetables vended in Athi river, Syokima and Mlolongo were above those recommended by the Ministry of Health and WHO. Similarly, cadmium content were high but within normal requirements. Exposure of lead to human populations, especially children is harmful to neurological developments.
Keywords
Lead, Cadmium, Poisoning, Waste-water, Farm, Market
To cite this article
Mutuku Joseph Mutua, Onjong Hillary Adawo, Orina Isaac Alfred, Mwaniki Mercy Wanjiru, Vuluku Reagan, Muchai Venessa, Prevalence and Concentration of Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) in Kales (Brassica oleracea Acephala) & Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) Sold at Masaku County, Kenya, International Journal of Food Science and Biotechnology. Vol. 5, No. 4, 2020, pp. 83-88. doi: 10.11648/j.ijfsb.20200504.16
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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